# Gallery of Multilevel Papers - Search results

Found 197 paper(s). Displaying 1-197. View paginated results

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### Longitudinal impact of demographic and clinical variables on health-related quality of life in cystic fibrosis

### Elastography of the normal canine liver, spleen and kidneys.

### ‘Development in reverse’? A longitudinal analysis of armed conflict, fragility and school enrolment

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data

### Don't birth cohorts matter? A commentary and simulation exercise on Reither, Hauser, and Yang's (2009) age–period–cohort study of obesity

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Cross-classified
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Hierarchical Age Period Cohort model
- MCMC
- Simulations

### Another ’futile quest’? A simulation study of Yang and Land’s Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort model

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Cross-classified
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- MCMC
- simulation

- Demography
- Human geography
- Public Health/Epidemiology
- age period cohort models
- identification problem
- Yang and Land

### 'All in it together'? Social cohesion in a dividing society: attitudes to income inequality and redistribution in a residential context

- Environmental planning
- Human geography
- Social policy
- Sociology
- Attitudes/ Neighborhood effects/ Social cohesion

### Multilevel Confirmatory Ordinal Factor Analysis of the Life Skills Profile–16

- Two level
- Ordered categorical response
- Random intercepts (only)
- multilevel confirmatory factor analysis

### Horse-, training- and race-level risk factors for palmar/plantar osteochondral disease in the racing Thoroughbred

### Determinants of firms' investment behaviour: A multilevel approach

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Random slopes

### Measuring determinants of post-compulsory participation in science: a comparative study using national data

### Entrepreneurship, Social Capital, and Institutions: Social and Commercial Entrepreneurship Across Nations

- Management and business studies
- entrepreneurship
- social entrepreneurship
- social capital
- institutions
- global entrepreneurship monitor

### School reform and opportunity throughout the lifecourse: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Very long-term follow up of birth cohort (first sweep 1947
- follow up 2004-7)

### The attainment of pupils in Gaelic-medium primary education in Scotland

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Multivariate response model

### Residential mobility, neighbourhood deprivation and children’s behaviour

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### What Makes a Bully a Cyberbully? Unravelling the Characteristics of Cyberbullies across Twenty-Five European Countries

- Education
- Political science and international studies
- Psychology
- Science and technology studies
- Social policy
- Sociology

### Multilevel Modelling of Modern Contraceptive Use among Rural and Urban Population of Ethiopia

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Multilevel Logistic Regression Models
- Heterogeneity

- Public Health/Epidemiology
- Statistics, methods and computing
- High Fertility
- Modern Contraceptives
- Regional Variations
- EDHS
- Ethiopia

### New insights from the decline in home advantage observed in Football post World War2

- Psychology
- Sociology
- Home advantage
- Referees’ decision making
- Soccer
- Association Football
- Crowd effects.

### Living apart, losing sympathy? How neighbourhood context affects attitudes to redistribution and to welfare recipients

### Does inequality erode social trust? Results from multilevel models of US states and counties

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- group mean centering

### Longitudinal association between lung function and health-related quality of life in cystic fibrosis

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Quality of life
- response is proportions not derived from aggregation

### The quadratic relationship between socioeconomic status and learning performance in China by multilevel analysis: Implications for policies to foster education equity

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Cross-classified
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Random slopes
- Multivariate response model

### Variance components estimation for continuous and discrete data, with emphasis on cross-classified sampling designs

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Count response
- Cross-classified
- Random intercepts (only)
- bias
- cross-classified random effects models
- simulations

### Multilevel analysis of environmental Salmonella prevalences and management practices on 49 broiler breeder farms in four southeastern states, U.S.A.

- Four or more levels
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- multilevel logistic regression

### Heterogeneity of hunting ability and nutritional status among domestic dogs in lowland Nicaragua

### Patterns of Therapist Variability: Therapist Effects & the Contribution Of Patient Severity & Risk

### Cognitive ability, area deprivation, and young children’s emotional and behavioral problems

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Patient, practice and organizational influences on asthma control. Observational data from a national study on primary care in the United Kingdom.

- Four or more levels
- Continuous response
- Ordered categorical response
- Purely hierarchical
- Multi-level factor analysis
- Models patients (level 1) within practices (level 2) within primary care trusts (level 3) within strategic health authority (level 4)

### Ethnic and social disparity in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes; cohort study in general practice 2004–9

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data

### The Geography of Well-Being

### Is success in obtaining contact and cooperation correlated with the magnitude of interviewer variance

### Do some trusts deliver a consistently better experience for patients? An analysis of patient experience across acute care surveys in English NHS trusts

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Type keywords separated by semicolons

### Getting "Sicker Quicker": does living in a more deprived neighbourhood mean your health deteriorates faster?

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data

### Culture and the Distinctiveness Motive: Constructing Identity in Individualistic and Collectivistic Contexts

### Place attachment in deprived neighbourhoods: the impacts of population turnover and social mix

### Contextual variations in ethnic group differences in educational attainments

### The use of National Data sets to Baseline Science Education Reform: Exploring Value-Added Approaches

### Modeling data with structural and temporal correlation using lower level and higher level multilevel models

- Four or more levels
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Random slopes
- Temporal autocorrelation
- Longitudinal data

### Does ethnic diversity erode trust? Putnam's 'hunkering down' thesis reconsidered

### Do neighborhoods generate fear of crime? An empirical test using the British Crime Survey

### Do social inequalities in health widen or converge with age? Longitudinal evidence from three cohorts in the West of Scotland

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- survival bias

### Ageing, Social Class, and Common Mental Disorders: Longitudinal Evidence from Three Cohorts in the West of Scotland

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Have new street lighting schemes reduced crime in London?

### Using field process data to predict best times of contact conditioning on household and interviewer influences

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Cross-classified
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Discrete-time event history model

### Multilevel modelling of social segregation

### Understanding uncertainty in school league tables

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Rater effects on essay scoring: A multilevel analysis of severity drift, central tendency and rater experience

### Continuous monitoring of pop hole usage by commercially housed free range hens throughout the production cycle

### Estimating research performance by using research grant award gradings

### Relationships between multiple welfare indicators measured in individual chickens across different time periods and environments

### Decisions about foraging and risk trade-offs in chickens are associated with individual somatic response profile

### Statistical modelling of neighbour treatment effects in aquaculture clinical trials

- Four or more levels
- Binary/proportions response
- Cross-classified
- Multiple membership
- Random intercepts (only)
- non linear models
- simulation study

### Is traditional contraceptive use in Moldova associated with poverty and isolation?

### Investigating perceptions of antisocial behaviour and neighbourhood ethnic heterogeneity in the British Crime Survey

### Site-Specific Gingival Bleeding on Probing in a Steady-State Plaque Environment: Influence of Polymorphisms in the Interleukin-1 Gene Cluster

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Area and family effects on the psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study children and their older siblings

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Modeling risks: Effects of area deprivation, family socio-economic disadvantage, and adverse life events on young children’s psychopathology.

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Adverse life events, area socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychopathology and resilience in young children: The importance of risk factors’ accumulation and protective factors’ specificity

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Adverse life events, area socio-economic disadvantage, and adolescent psychopathology: The role of closeness to grandparents in moderating the effect of contextual stress

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Multivariate response model

### Do some schools narrow the gap? Differential school effectiveness by ethnicity, gender, poverty and prior achievement

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Complex level 2 (school) variance in relation to pupil (level 1) characteristics
- Interactions at level 1 between pupil characteristics.

### Cultural differences in the relationships among autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality, and effort in British and Chinese physical education.

### Using a hierarchical model to estimate risk-adjusted mortality for hospitals not included in the reference sample

### Predicting risk-adjusted mortality for trauma patients: Logistic versus multilevel logistic models

### Negative affect and ruminative self-focus during everyday goal pursuit

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Multivariate response model

### Modelling Residential Mobility: Factors Associated with the Movement of Children in Greater Johannesburg

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Discrete-time event history model

### Effects of Interviewer Attitudes and Behaviors on Refusal in Household Surveys

### Children's educational progress: partitioning family, school and area effects

- Four or more levels
- Continuous response
- Cross-classified
- Random intercepts (only)
- Separate variances for twins (a family and an individual variance) and single children (a combined family and invdividual variance)

### The risk factors affecting the development of gentle and severe feather pecking in loose housed laying hens

### The response of untamed (unbroken) ponies to conditions of road transport

### Effects of crowding and low oxygen on blood constituents and flesh quality variables in Atlantic salmon

### Muscle pH, rigor mortis and blood variables in Atlantic salmon during transportation in two types of wellboat

### Effects of commercial live transportation and preslaughter handling of Atlantic salmon on blood constituents

### Factors affecting the mortality of weaned piglets during commercial transports between farms

- Two level
- Count response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Overdispersion modelled as per Browne et al 2005

### Pupil composition and accountability: an analysis in English primary schools

### Statistical modelling of repeated measurement data

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Use of individual cow milk recording data at the start of lactation to predict the calving to conception interval

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Duration or survival response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- MCMC
- discrete time survival

### Mixed effect modelling of proteomic mass spectrometry data using Gaussian mixtures

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model
- Basis vectors

### Consistency, transitivity and inter-relationships between measures of choice in environmental preference tests with chickens

### Multilevel modeling of gingival bleeding on probing in young adult carriers of non-JP2-like strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

### Dealing with hierarchical data in periodontal research

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data

### The effect of newer anti-rheumatic drugs on osteogenic cell proliferation: an in-vitro study

- Biological sciences
- Medical sciences
- Science and technology studies
- In vitro
- Cell culture
- Rheumatology
- Bone fracture

### The Use of Simple Reparameterisations in MCMC Estimation of Multilevel Models with Applications to Discrete-Time Survival Models

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Discrete-time event history model

### The limitations of using school league tables to inform school choice

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Multivariate response model

- Education
- Statistics, methods and computing
- Examination results
- Institutional comparisons
- League tables
- Performance indicators
- Ranking
- School choice
- School effectiveness
- Value added

### The complexity of school and neighbourhood effects and movements of pupils on school differences in models of educational achievement

### The development, implementation and testing of a lameness-control programme based on HACCP principles and designed for heifers on dairy farms

### Multivariate multilevel modelling of childhood growth, numbers of growth measurements and adult characteristics

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Count response
- Unordered categorical response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Handling attrition and non-response in longitudinal data

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data

### Adjusting for measurement error in the value added model: evidence from Portugal

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- value added
- measurement error

### Associations between welfare indicators and environmental choice in laying hens

### Use of posterior predictive assessments to evaluate model fit in multilevel logistic regression

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- MCMC
- Model fit
- posterior predictive assessment

### Multilevel Modelling of Refusal and noncontact in Household Surveys: Evidence from Six UK Government Surveys

### Modeling mucosal dimensions after implantation of a bio-absorbable membrane for surgical root coverage

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Science knowledge and attitudes across cultures: a meta-analysis

- Four or more levels
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- multilevel meta-analysis

### Ruminative self-focus, negative life events, and negative affect

### Ruminative self-focus and negative affect: An experience sampling study

### Multilevel Models for Longitudinal Data

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Duration or survival response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Temporal autocorrelation
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model
- A range of models are considered in this review article (listed in the abstract)

### Leg disorders in broiler chickens: prevalence, risk factors and prevention

### Effects of transportation in a well-boat on the muscle pH and onset of rigor mortis in Atlantic Salmon

### Factors affecting the mortality of pigs being transported to slaughter

### Modelling measurement errors and category misclassifications in multilevel models

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Unordered categorical response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)

### School league tables: what can they really tell us?

### Towards humane end points: behavioural changes precede clinical signs of disease in a Huntington's disease model

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Growth curves

### Cow, farm, and herd management factors in the dry period associated with raised somatic cell counts in early lactation

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- MCMC

### A combination of alleles 2 of interleukin (IL)-1A(-889) and IL-1B(+3954) is associated with lower gingival bleeding tendency in plaque-induced gingivitis in young adults of Arabic heritage

### A bivariate multi-level model, which avoids mathematical coupling in the study of change and initial periodontal attachment level after therapy

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Multivariate response model

### The Effect of School Resources on Student Attainment: A Multilevel Simultaneous Equation Modelling Approach

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Multivariate response model
- Multivariate (simultaneous equations) model with responses at different levels

### Modelling the effect of pupil mobility on school differences in educational achievement

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Cross-classified
- Multiple membership
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data

### Multilevel structural equation models for the analysis of comparative data on educational performance

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Unordered categorical response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Multivariate response model

### Cow, farm, and management factors during the dry period that determine the rate of clinical mastitis after calving

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Duration or survival response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- MCMC

### Using cross-classified multivariate mixed response models with application to life history traits in great tits (Parus major)

- Four or more levels
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Cross-classified
- Random intercepts (only)
- Multivariate response model
- Mixed response models, MCMC

### Effect of triclosan/copolymer-containing toothpaste on the association between plaque and gingival bleeding: a randomized controlled clinical trial

- Four or more levels
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Modelling repeated ordinal reports from multiple informants

- Two level
- Ordered categorical response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### The Formation and Outcomes of Cohabiting and Marital Partnerships in Early Adulthood: The Role of Previous Partnership Experience

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model
- Multilevel discrete-time event history model for multiple processes and competing risks

### A multilevel factor model for mixed binary and ordinal indicators of women's status

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Unordered categorical response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Multivariate response model

### Estimation in generalised linear mixed models with binary outcomes by simulated maximum likelihood

### Holliday’s engine mapping experiment revisited: a design problem with 2-level repeated measures data

### Seasonal variation of bulk milk somatic cell counts in UK dairy herds: investigations of the summer rise

### MCMC Algorithms for constrained variance matrices

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random intercepts (only)
- Temporal autocorrelation
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model
- Mixed response models

### A comparison of Bayesian and likelihood-based methods for fitting multilevel models

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- MCMC
- Simulation study

### Changing compatibility of cohabitation and childbearing between young British women born in 1958 and 1970

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Duration or survival response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Gingival bleeding on repeat probing after different time intervals in plaque-induced gingivitis

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data

### Variance components of gingival thickness

### Modelling Behaviour with Multivariate Multilevel Growth Curves

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Generalized linear mixed models for ordered responses in complex multilevel structures: effects beneath the school or college in education

- Four or more levels
- Unordered categorical response
- Cross-classified
- Multiple membership
- Random intercepts (only)

### A multilevel investigation of the relationship between role ambiguity and role efficacy in sport

### Variance partitioning in multilevel logistic models that exhibit over-dispersion

### The Relationship between Childbearing and Transitions from Marriage and Cohabitation in Britain

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model
- Multilevel discrete-time history model
- multiple states
- competing risks
- multiple processes

### Consistency in reasoning scores over time

- Four or more levels
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model
- Model four test scores VR, QR, NVR & GCSE (level 1) within pupils (level 2) within year (level 3) within schools level (4).

### Population effects on individual systolic blood pressure: a multilevel analysis of the World Health Organization MONICA Project.

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random intercepts (only)
- Random slopes

- Public Health/Epidemiology
- antihypertensive agents
- blood pressure
- body mass index
- education
- hypertension
- population
- world health

### A flexible procedure for analyzing longitudinal event histories using a multilevel model

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Duration or survival response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data

### Scaling for residual variance components of ordered category responses in generalised linear mixed multilevel models

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Unordered categorical response
- Cross-classified
- Random intercepts (only)

### An illustration of the use of reparameterisation methods for improving MCMC efficiency in crossed random effect models

### A General Multistate Competing Risks Model for Event History Data, with an Application to a Study of Contraceptive Use Dynamics

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Duration or survival response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model
- Multilevel discrete-time event history
- multiple states
- competing risks

### A general multilevel multistate competing risks model for event history data, with an application to a study of contraceptive use dynamics

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Duration or survival response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Multivariate response model

### A Multilevel Mixture Model for Event History Data with Long-term Survivors: An application to an Analysis of Contraceptive Sterilisation in Bangladesh

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Duration or survival response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model
- Multilevel discrete-time event history model
- one response partially observed

### Modelling social segregation

### Multilevel ordinal models for examination grades

### Estimation of a large cross-classified multilevel model to study academic achievement in a modular degree course

### Modelling Impact Heterogeneity

### The Effects of Kin on Child Mortality in Rural Gambia

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multilevel discrete-time event history model

### A comparison of modelling strategies for value added analyses of educational data

### Teaching groups as foci for evaluating performance in cost-effectiveness of GCE Advanced Level provision: some practical methodological innovations

### Multivariate multilevel analysis of examination results

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model
- Missing data

### Multilevel modelling of medical data

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Duration or survival response
- Cross-classified
- Multiple membership
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random slopes
- Temporal autocorrelation
- Multivariate response model
- Meta Analysis
- bootstrapping

### Partitioning variation in multilevel models

### Multilevel factor analysis modelling using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Multivariate response model
- Factor Analysis
- Missing data

### Bayesian and likelihood methods for fitting multilevel models with complex level-1 variation

### A study of class size effects in English school reception year classes

### Explanatory Models for Relating Growth Processes

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Survival after initial hospitalisation for heart failure: a multilevel analysis of patients in Swedish acute care hospitals

### Savings/Credit Group Formation and Change in Contraception

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data

### Predicting the future: the role of past performance in determining trends in institutional effectiveness at A level

### The difficulty of ranking schools: the limits to 'value-added'

### Using pupil performance data for judging schools and teachers: scope and limitations

### Measuring the relationship between resources and outcomes in higher education in the UK

### Modelling non-hierarchical structures

- Four or more levels
- Binary/proportions response
- Cross-classified
- Multiple membership
- Random intercepts (only)
- none

### Multiple membership multiple classification (MMMC) models

- Four or more levels
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Count response
- Cross-classified
- Multiple membership
- Random slopes
- Spatial autocorrelation
- Spatial CAR models

### Evaluating Educational Interventions using Multilevel Growth Curves: The Case of Reading Recovery

### Multilevel models for repeated binary outcomes: attitudes and voting over the electoral cycle

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data

### A multilevel model framework for meta-analysis of clinical trials with binary outcomes

### Meta-analysis using multilevel models with an application to the study of class size effects

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Multilevel models in the study of dynamic household structures

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Duration or survival response
- Cross-classified
- Multiple membership
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Model duration of household stay

### Implementation and performance issues in the Bayesian and likelihood fitting of multilevel models

- Statistics, methods and computing
- IGLS
- MCMC
- Adaptive Metropolis Sampling
- Simulation studies
- default Prior distributions

### Ethnic group, sex and economic disadvantage: Associations with pupils' educational progress from Baseline to the end of KS1

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model
- Models pupils (level 1) within cohorts (level 2) within schools level (3)
- Models complex level 3 (school) variance in relation to pupil (level 1) characteristics.

### Multilevel modelling of the geographical distribution of diseases

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Count response
- Duration or survival response
- Other response type
- Multiple membership
- Random intercepts (only)
- Spatial autocorrelation

### Why use arbitrary points scores? Ordered categories in models of educational progress

### The Impact of Family Planning Service Provision on Contraceptive Use Dynamics in Morocco

- Three level
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multilevel discrete-time event history
- competing risks

### Contraceptive Switching in Bangladesh

- Three level
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multilevel discrete-time event history model
- competing risks

### Weighting for unequal selection probabilities in multilevel models.

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- incorporation of weights into IGLS

### Multi-level repeated measures growth modelling using extended spline functions

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Multilevel modeling of educational data with cross-classification and missing identification for units

### The consequences of drop-outs on the cost-effectiveness of 16-19 colleges

### Multi-level models for longitudinal growth norms

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### The influence of secondary and junior schools on sixteen year examination performance: a cross-classified multilevel analysis

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Cross-classified
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data

### Perspectives on performance indicators: GCE Advanced Level and differences between institution types in cost effectiveness

### Immunization Uptake in Rural Bangladesh: a Multilevel Analysis

- Three level
- Binary/proportions response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multilevel event history model

### Multilevel analysis of the changing relationship between class and party in Britain 1964-1992

### Changes and improvements in schools' effectiveness: trends over five years

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Temporal autocorrelation
- Longitudinal data

### Using examination results as indicators of school and college performance

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data

### League tables and their limitations: statistical issues in comparisons of institutional performance

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data

### Improved approximations for multilevel models with binary responses

### The Determinants of the Duration of Contraceptive Use in China: A Multilevel Multinomial Discrete Hazards Modelling Approach

- Two level
- Purely hierarchical
- Random intercepts (only)
- Longitudinal data
- Multilevel discrete-time event history model
- competing risks

### A multilevel analysis of school improvement: changes in schools’ performance over time

- Three level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Temporal autocorrelation
- Longitudinal data

### Multilevel time series models with applications to repeated measures data

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random slopes
- Temporal autocorrelation
- Longitudinal data

### Efficient analysis of mixed hierarchical and cross-classified random structures using a multilevel model

- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Cross-classified
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Multilevel cross-classified models

- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Cross-classified
- Random slopes
- Multivariate response model

### Institutional disparities in the cost effectiveness of GCE A-Level provision: a multi-level approach

### A multilevel analysis of school examination results

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### A two-level cross-sectional model using grafted polynomials

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data

### Multi-level statistical models in studies of periodontal diseases

### New statistical methods for analysing social structures: an introduction to multilevel models

- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Cross-classified
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

### Multilevel modelling of complex survey data

### Nonlinear multilevel models, with an application to discrete response data

### Differential school effectiveness

### Restricted (unbiased) iterative generalised least squares estimation

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model
- Introduced RIGLS estimation

### Flexible models for the analysis of growth data with application to height prediction

### A General Model for the Analysis of Multilevel Data

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model
- Structural equation model

### Multilevel Mixed Linear Model Analysis Using Iterative Generalised Least Squares

- Two level
- Continuous response
- Purely hierarchical
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random slopes
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

## Model

- Four or more levels
- Three level
- Two level
- Binary/proportions response
- Continuous response
- Count response
- Duration or survival response
- Ordered categorical response
- Other response type
- Unordered categorical response
- Cross-classified
- Multiple membership
- Purely hierarchical
- Complex level 1 variance
- Random intercepts (only)
- Random slopes
- Spatial autocorrelation
- Temporal autocorrelation
- Longitudinal data
- Multivariate response model

- non linear models
- Spatial CAR models
- value added
- Models complex level 3 (school) variance in relation to pupil (level 1) characteristics.
- Models patients (level 1) within practices (level 2) within primary care trusts (level 3) within strategic health authority (level 4)
- Structural equation model
- multilevel confirmatory factor analysis
- Simulation study
- Multilevel event history model
- Multilevel discrete-time event history
- bias
- Missing data
- Type keywords separated by semicolons
- cross-classified random effects models
- incorporation of weights into IGLS
- group mean centering
- one response partially observed
- Heterogeneity
- Complex level 2 (school) variance in relation to pupil (level 1) characteristics
- Hierarchical Age Period Cohort model
- MCMC
- Very long-term follow up of birth cohort (first sweep 1947
- Multilevel discrete-time history model
- Quality of life
- bivariate model
- Introduced RIGLS estimation
- Models pupils (level 1) within cohorts (level 2) within schools level (3)
- measurement error
- posterior predictive assessment
- VPC
- Separate variances for twins (a family and an individual variance) and single children (a combined family and invdividual variance)
- multilevel meta-analysis
- Multivariate (simultaneous equations) model with responses at different levels
- A range of models are considered in this review article (listed in the abstract)
- Multilevel discrete-time event history model for multiple processes and competing risks
- survival bias
- Multilevel Logistic Regression Models
- Factor Analysis
- Discrete-time event history model
- response is proportions not derived from aggregation
- competing risks
- discrete time survival
- simulation study
- Multilevel discrete-time event history model
- Meta Analysis
- Basis vectors
- Cubic splines
- multilevel logistic regression
- Model duration of household stay
- Cluster analysis
- Overdispersion modelled as per Browne et al 2005
- Model four test scores VR, QR, NVR & GCSE (level 1) within pupils (level 2) within year (level 3) within schools level (4).
- follow up 2004-7)
- Mixed response models
- none
- simulation
- bootstrapping
- Multi-level factor analysis
- Interactions at level 1 between pupil characteristics.
- multiple processes
- Growth curves
- Model fit
- Mixed response models, MCMC
- Simulations
- multiple states
- simulations

## Substantive area

- Area studies
- Biological sciences
- Demography
- Economics
- Education
- Engineering and physical sciences
- Environmental planning
- Human geography
- Management and business studies
- Medical sciences
- Political science and international studies
- Psychology
- Public Health/Epidemiology
- Science and technology studies
- Social anthropology
- Social policy
- Sociology
- Statistics, methods and computing

- somatic cell count
- School effectiveness
- value added
- rater bias
- Ethiopia
- social capital
- Wild Unbroken Pony
- social segregation
- Infectious salmon anaemia virus
- League tables
- salmonella
- Mortality
- Life Skills Profile
- Ranking
- Obesity
- humane end point
- EDHS
- social class
- crime
- global entrepreneurship monitor
- population
- dairy cow
- GCE Alevel
- Broiler
- National pupil database
- world health
- post-16 science
- Contextual Value Added
- milk recording
- Dairy Cattle
- body mass index
- Control
- Higher education
- patient experience
- construct validity
- Pig
- Performance indicators
- school effectiveness
- student attrition
- default Prior distributions
- Transport
- age period cohort models
- Home advantage
- primary education
- rater central tendency
- Animal growth
- Bird ecology
- Examination results
- Choice experiments
- Pupil mobility
- mass spectrometry
- depression
- criminology
- residential mobility
- mood
- segregation indices
- Mathematics Education
- Simulation studies
- Lameness
- rater severity
- multilevel
- progress
- Salmonella
- factor analysis
- cost effectiveness, FE colleges
- In vitro
- Modern Contraceptives
- Illiteracy
- lip cancer
- behaviour
- biomarkers
- Crowd effects.
- Lifecourse
- entrepreneurship
- IGLS
- Survey nonresponse
- Somatic cell count
- Value added
- regional well-being
- Rheumatology
- animal welfare
- Exam results
- Hungary
- Contraceptive use
- Artificial Insemination, Salmonella, Chickens
- school effects
- stability/reliability
- Sport, Exercise
- Referees’ decision making
- choice tests
- mouse welfare
- dry period
- primary
- Rater effects
- Institutional comparisons
- Free Range
- Asthma
- Hen
- contraceptive use
- Ranging
- Micro-credit programmes
- elastography
- calving to conception interval
- Association Football
- antihypertensive agents
- Salmon
- clustered data
- curriculum reform
- mastitis
- Bone fracture
- Growth data
- Science Education
- national data
- High Fertility
- Observational, time allocation, dogs
- Well
- Yang and Land
- multilevel modelling
- cost effectiveness, Higher Education
- reasoning ability
- Attitudes/ Neighborhood effects/ Social cohesion
- Piglet
- anxiety
- value-added
- Proteomics
- social mix
- research assessment
- science education
- Huntington’s disease
- household structures
- Adaptive Metropolis Sampling
- Boat
- motivation
- Place attachment
- social entrepreneurship
- Mastitis
- Feather pecking
- hypertension
- identification problem
- Modular courses
- education
- Voting data
- ethnicity
- research grant awards
- Soccer
- melanoma
- liver
- blood pressure
- crime science
- welfare indicators
- rumination
- mixed communities
- kidney
- Regional Variations
- School choice
- class size
- salmon
- group effects
- essay scoring
- metrics
- Cell culture
- Key Stage 1 Mathematics
- MCMC
- GCE A level - cost effectiveness
- non-economic factors.
- achievement
- poultry
- School league tables
- dairy cows
- spleen
- chickens
- dog
- Growth
- Value-added models
- consistency
- transitivity
- institutions
- goals