The Effect of School Resources on Student Attainment: A Multilevel Simultaneous Equation Modelling Approach

Steele, F., Vignoles, A. and Jenkins, A.
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 170(3), 801-824

Improving educational achievement in UK schools is a priority, and of particular concern is the low achievement of specific groups, such as those from lower socio-economic backgrounds. An obvious question is whether we should be improving the outcomes of these pupils by spending more on their education. The literature on the effect of educational spending on the achievement of pupils has some methodological difficulties, in particular the endogeneity of school resource levels, and the intraschool correlations in pupils' responses. We adopt a multi-level simultaneous equation modelling approach to assess the effect of school resources on pupil attainment at age 14 years. The paper is the first to apply a simultaneous equation model to estimate the effect of school resources on pupils' achievement, using the newly available national pupil database and pupil level annual school census.

Number of levels
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Response types
Multivariate response model?
Longitudinal data?
Further model keywords
Substantive discipline

This research was part of a project funded by the Department for Education and Skills in 2004.

Paper submitted by
Fiona Steele, Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol
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